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The UPSC exam, conducted by the Union Public Service Commission, holds a position of immense prestige and competitiveness within India. Its primary purpose is to identify exceptional individuals for esteemed government roles, including civil services like the Indian Administrative Service (IAS), Indian Police Service (IPS), and Indian Foreign Service (IFS), among others.


What distinguishes this exam is its rigorous selection process, which scrutinizes candidates' knowledge, aptitude, and personal attributes.


The UPSC exam unfolds through three distinct stages:


1. The Preliminary Examination (Prelims)

The Prelims serve as a screening test, consisting of objective-type questions that evaluate candidates' general awareness, current affairs, and aptitude skills. Qualifying performance in the Prelims paves the way for progression to the Mains.


2. The Main Examination (Mains)

The Mains is an all-encompassing written examination designed to assess candidates' profound understanding and knowledge across various subjects such as history, geography, economics, science, and technology. This comprehensive evaluation includes multiple papers encompassing essays, general studies, and optional subjects.


3. The Personality Test (Interview)

Following successful clearance of the Mains, candidates are invited to participate in the Personality Test. This stage serves as an assessment of candidates' personality traits, communication abilities, and overall suitability for administrative positions. The final selection hinges upon the candidates' performance in the Mains and the Personality Test.


Preparation for the UPSC exam necessitates extensive study, effective time management, and a systematic approach. Aspiring candidates must cultivate a strong foundation in diverse subjects, complemented by critical thinking and analytical skills. Staying updated with current affairs and honing writing and communication prowess are also vital components.


In conclusion, the UPSC exam stands as a fiercely competitive endeavor that strives to identify deserving candidates for esteemed government positions. Success in this examination demands unwavering dedication, perseverance, and a comprehensive understanding of various subjects. Accomplishment in the UPSC exam opens doors to a challenging and gratifying career in India's civil services.


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Eligibility Criteria

The eligibility criteria for the UPSC (Union Public Service Commission) exam can be summarized as follows:

  • Nationality: Candidates must be citizens of India. For certain positions like the IAS and IPS, candidates from Nepal, Bhutan, and Tibetan refugees settled in India are also eligible.
  • Age Limit: The minimum age limit is 21 years, while the maximum age limit varies depending on the category of the candidate. For general category candidates, the maximum age limit is 32 years, with a relaxation in the upper age limit for reserved category candidates.
  • Educational Qualification: Candidates must hold a bachelor's degree from a recognized university. There is no specific discipline requirement, which means candidates from any academic background can apply.
  • Number of Attempts: The number of attempts permitted varies based on the candidate's category. ...

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  • History
  • Geography
  • Polity and Governance
  • Economy
  • Science and Technology
  • Environment and Ecology
  • Current Affairs
  • Ethics, Integrity, and Aptitude
  • Mathematics and Data Interpretation
  • Optional Subjects
  • General Studies Paper-I: Indian Heritage and Culture, History, Geography, Indian Polity, Governance, Social Justice, International Relations, Economic Development, Environmental Ecology, Science, and Technology.
  • General Studies Paper-II: Comprehension, Interpersonal Skills, Logical Reasoning, Analytical Ability, Decision Making, Problem Solving, General Mental Ability, Basic Numeracy, Data Interpretation, English Language Comprehension Skills.
  • Optional Subject: Candidates can choose one optional subject from a list provided by UPSC. Some popular optional subjects include Geography, History, Public Administration, Sociology, Political Science, Economics, Psychology, and Literature.
  • Essay Writing: Candidates are required to write essays on given topics to test their writing skills, clarity of thought, and coherence in expression.
  • English Language and Indian Language: This section evaluates candidates' proficiency in English and any one Indian language included in the Eighth Schedule of the Constitution.
  • General Studies Paper-III: Technology, Economic Development, Biodiversity, Security, Disaster Management, Ethics, Integrity, and Aptitude.
  • General Studies Paper-IV: Ethics, Integrity, and Aptitude.

Cut Off

In the Civil Services Examination 2022, the UPSC (Union Public Service Commission) has determined the minimum qualifying standards/marks secured by the last recommended candidate in various categories at different stages of the exam. These cutoff scores play a crucial role in determining the eligibility and selection of candidates for various civil services positions.


 For the Preliminary Examination (CS(Prelim)), the minimum qualifying marks secured by the last recommended candidate were as follows:


Category Percentage
General 88.22
EWS(Economically Weaker Section) 82.83
OBC(Other backward Classes) 87.54
SC(Scheduled Caste) 74.08
ST(Scheduled Tribe) 69.35
PwBD-1(Persons with Benchmark Disability) 49.84
PwBD-2(Persons with Benchmark Disability) 58.59
PwBD-3(Persons with Benchmark Disability) 40.4
PwBD-4(Persons with Benchmark Disability) 41.76


In the National Defence Academy & Naval Academy Examination (II) of 2022, the UPSC has provided recommendation details and cut-off marks for various wings.


- The Army wing had 208 vacancies, resulting in 538 recommended candidates. The minimum qualifying standard at the written stage was 316 out of 900 marks, while the last recommended candidate secured 678 marks at the final stage out of 1800 marks.


- The Navy wing, with 42 vacancies, did not provide specific information on recommendations or qualifying standards.


- The Flying branch of the Air Force had 92 vacancies, but no details were given for recommendations or qualifying standards.


The Ground duties (Tech) and Ground duties (Non-Tech) branches also lacked information on recommendations or qualifying standards. The Naval Academy had 30 vacancies exclusively for male candidates, without further details on recommendations or qualifying standards. These figures offer an overview of the recommendation details and cut-off marks for the National Defence Academy & Naval Academy Examination (II) of 2022.


In the Indian Economic Service / Indian Statistical Service Examination of 2022, the UPSC has provided recommendation details and cut-off marks for different categories. The examination includes categories such as General, EWS, OBC, SC, and ST. The vacancies and recommendation details vary across these categories. The minimum qualifying standards at the written stage range from 287 to 418, out of 1000 marks, and the cut-off marks at the final stage range from 457 to 585, out of 1200 marks. Additionally, there are two vacancies for candidates belonging to Persons with Benchmark Disability (PwBD), specifically PwBD-3 and PwBD-5, with one recommendation in the PwBD-3 category. The recommendation details and cut-off marks for these categories are also provided. The total number of vacancies and recommendations is outlined in the table.

Exam Pattern

The exam pattern of the UPSC (Union Public Service Commission) exam can be divided into three stages:

  • The Preliminary Examination (Prelims)
  • The Main Examination (Mains)
  • The Personality Test (Interview)

Preliminary Examination (Prelims): The Prelims is the first stage of the UPSC exam and consists of two objective-type papers, namely General Studies Paper-I and General Studies Paper-II (CSAT). General Studies Paper-I tests candidates' knowledge in subjects such as history, geography, economics, science and technology, current affairs, and more. Paper-II evaluates candidates' aptitude and comprehension skills.


Main Examination (Mains): The Mains is the second stage and comprises nine descriptive papers. These include one qualifying paper on any of the Indian languages listed in the Eighth Schedule of the Constitution, one English language paper, four General Studies papers, and two optional subject papers chosen by the candidate. Additionally, there is an essay paper that assesses candidates' ability to express their thoughts in a coherent and logical manner.


Personality Test (Interview): The Personality Test is the final stage of the UPSC exam. It involves a personal interview conducted by a board of experts to evaluate candidates' intellectual ability, social skills, and suitability for administrative roles. The interview aims to assess candidates' personality traits, communication skills, and their understanding of various issues.


It is important to note that the Prelims serves as a screening test, and only candidates who secure the minimum qualifying marks are eligible to appear for the Mains. Similarly, candidates who clear the Mains are then called for the Personality Test.


The UPSC exam pattern aims to test candidates' knowledge, analytical skills, comprehension abilities, and suitability for administrative positions. It requires a comprehensive understanding of various subjects, effective time management, and strong writing and communication skills.


Candidates preparing for the UPSC exam should familiarize themselves with the detailed syllabus, exam pattern, and previous year question papers to develop a strategic preparation strategy. It is also advisable to stay updated with current affairs and national and international events to excel in the exam.


How to Prepare

  • "Indian Polity" by M. Laxmikanth: This book is a popular choice for understanding the Indian political system, governance, and constitutional provisions.
  • "India's Struggle for Independence" by Bipan Chandra: It provides a detailed account of India's freedom struggle and is helpful for both the history and general studies sections of the exam.
  • "Certificate Physical and Human Geography" by G.C. Leong: This book covers the physical and human aspects of geography, including climate, landforms, and population, which are important for the geography section of the exam.
  • "Indian Economy" by Ramesh Singh: It provides an in-depth understanding of the Indian economy, covering various aspects like sectors, planning, budget, and economic reforms.
  • "Environment for Civil Services Prelims and Mains" by Shankar IAS Academy: This book focuses on environmental issues and covers topics like ecology, biodiversity, climate change, and sustainable development.


Additionally, it is important to refer to NCERT textbooks for subjects like history, geography, science, and economics, as they provide a strong foundation and are often recommended by experts. Regularly reading newspapers, such as The Hindu or The Indian Express, is also crucial for staying updated with current affairs.

Admit Card

The admit card process for the UPSC (Union Public Service Commission) exam is an important step that enables candidates to appear for the examination. The admit card, also known as the hall ticket, is a mandatory document that serves as proof of eligibility for the exam.


The process of obtaining the admit card typically involves the following steps:

  • Release of Admit Card: The UPSC releases the admit card on its official website, usually a few weeks before the examination. Candidates are required to visit the UPSC website and navigate to the relevant section to download their admit card.
  • Login Credentials: To download the admit card, candidates need to enter their registration number/roll number and date of birth/password. These login credentials are provided during the registration process.
  • Verification and Download: After entering the necessary details, candidates are required to verify their information and submit the request. The admit card is then generated and made available for download in PDF format.
  • Admit Card Details: The admit card contains crucial information such as the candidate's name, roll number, photograph, examination date and time, venue/address of the exam center, and important instructions. Candidates must carefully check all the details mentioned on the admit card for accuracy.
  • Print and Preservation: Once the admit card is downloaded, candidates should take a printout of it. It is advisable to keep multiple copies of the admit card for future reference and preserve it until the completion of the selection process.
  • Exam-Day Requirement: On the day of the examination, candidates must carry the printed admit card along with a valid photo ID proof (such as an Aadhaar card, PAN card, or passport) to the exam center. Without the admit card, candidates will not be allowed to enter the examination hall.


It is important for candidates to regularly check the UPSC website and their registered email address for updates regarding the admit card. In case of any discrepancies or issues with the admit card, candidates should immediately contact the UPSC for resolution.


By following the admit card process diligently, candidates can ensure a smooth and hassle-free experience on the day of the UPSC examination.

Seat Allotment

The seat allotment process for the UPSC (Union Public Service Commission) exam refers to the allocation of available vacancies to successful candidates based on their merit and preferences. After the final selection process, which includes the Main Examination (Mains) and the Personality Test (Interview), the UPSC prepares a merit list of candidates who have cleared all the stages.


The seat allotment is carried out according to the category-wise vacancies and the order of merit. The candidates are allocated services based on their rank in the final merit list and their preferences for the various civil services such as the Indian Administrative Service (IAS), Indian Police Service (IPS), Indian Foreign Service (IFS), and other allied services.


Candidates are required to submit their preferences for services and cadre preferences in an online form provided by the UPSC. These preferences are considered during the seat allotment process. However, the final allocation is determined primarily based on the candidate's rank and the vacancies available in each service and cadre.


It is important to note that seat allotment is a crucial step in the UPSC exam, as it determines the service and cadre a candidate will be appointed to. Candidates should carefully consider their preferences based on their interests, aptitude, and career goals.


The UPSC follows a fair and transparent process in seat allotment to ensure equal opportunities for all candidates. The final allocation is communicated to the successful candidates through formal communication from the UPSC.


It is advisable for candidates to regularly check the UPSC website and official notifications for updates on seat allotment and to stay informed about the latest developments in the selection process.



What are the exams conducted by UPSC?

UPSC conducts various exams, including the Civil Services Examination (CSE), Indian Forest Service Examination (IFoS), Engineering Services Examination (ESE), Combined Medical Services Examination (CMSE), and many more.

What are the civil services under UPSC?

The civil services under UPSC include the Indian Administrative Service (IAS), Indian Police Service (IPS), Indian Foreign Service (IFS), Indian Revenue Service (IRS), and many more.

How can I apply for the UPSC exam?

Candidates can apply for the UPSC exam online through the official UPSC website. The application process is usually announced through a notification on the website.